N.Y. General Business Law Section 391-M
Manufacture and sale of in-line skates

  • regulation of

1.

As used in this section, the term:

(a)

“Protective gear” shall mean the following: a helmet meeting the standards established by the commissioner of motor vehicles pursuant to subdivision two-a of Vehicle & Traffic Law § 1238 (Passengers on bicycles under one year of age prohibited)section twelve hundred thirty-eight of the vehicle and traffic law; and wrist guards, elbow pads, and knee pads of such standards, designs, sizes, strengths, and thicknesses as will reduce the risk to the wearer of serious physical injury caused by impact to the body part on which such protective gear is designed to be worn, such as, but not limited to, from falls and collisions.

(b)

“In-line skate” shall mean a manufactured or assembled device each consisting of an upper portion that is intended to be secured to a human foot, with a frame or chassis attached along the length of the bottom of such upper portion, with such frame or chassis holding two or more wheels that are longitudinally aligned and used to skate or glide, by means of human foot and leg power while having such device attached to each such foot or leg.

(c)

“Brake” shall mean a part which is secured to an in-line skate, as defined in paragraph (b) of this subdivision, and intended to enable the user to control his or her speed and/or come to a stop.

(d)

“Warning instruction” shall mean a label, hangtag, shield or plate which is clearly visible to the consumer, with substantially the following notice printed in clear and conspicuous type: “WARNING ! REDUCE THE RISK OF SERIOUS INJURY AND ONLY USE THESE SKATES WHILE WEARING FULL PROTECTIVE GEAR - HELMET, WRIST GUARDS, ELBOW PADS, AND KNEE PADS.” 2.

(a)

No person, firm, corporation, or other legal entity which manufactures or assembles in-line skates shall manufacture, assemble, sell, offer to sell, or distribute in this state such in-line skates unless:

(i)

at least one such in-line skate in each pair manufactured or assembled is manufactured or assembled with a brake, as defined in this section; and

(ii)

at least one such in-line skate in each pair manufactured or assembled contains a warning instruction, as defined in this section, either on at least one such in-line skate in each pair or on the outside of the box in which such pair of in-line skates is sold or offered for sale at retail; and

(iii)

each such pair of in-line skates which contains a user’s guide or buyer’s instruction manual also contains a warning instruction, as defined in this section, within or on such guide or manual; and, (iv) every in-line skate is equipped with a reflective device or material meeting the standards established by rules and regulations promulgated by the commissioner of motor vehicles. Each pair of in-line skates which is manufactured or assembled by a person, firm, corporation, or other legal entity for special use by highly skilled or expert skaters or for sale or distribution through custom orders, such as in-line hockey skates and in-line speed skates, is exempt from the requirements of items (i) and (iv) of this paragraph, provided that such person, firm, corporation or other legal entity which manufactures or assembles such pair of in-line skates clearly and conspicuously labels at least one in-line skate in each such pair of in-line skates or the outside of the box in which such pair of in-line skates is sold or offered for sale at retail with the following warning in substantially the following form: “WARNING: THESE IN-LINE SKATES CONTAIN NO BRAKES OR REFLECTIVE MATERIAL AND ARE INTENDED FOR HIGHLY SKILLED OR EXPERT SKATERS ONLY”.

(b)

No person, firm, corporation or other legal entity which is regularly engaged in the business of selling, offering for sale, or distributing in-line skates at retail for consumer use, shall sell, offer to sell, or distribute in this state such in-line skates unless such in-line skates conform to the manufacturing requirements set forth in paragraph (a) of this subdivision.

(c)

No person, firm, corporation, or other legal entity which is regularly engaged in the business of selling, offering for sale, or distributing in-line skates at retail, for consumer use, shall offer such in-line skates for sale in the normal course of business in this state unless such person, firm, corporation, or other legal entity contemporaneously offers for sale upon the same premises protective gear, as defined in this section.

(d)

Whenever there shall be a violation of this section, an application may be made by the attorney general in the name of the people of the state of New York to a court or justice having jurisdiction by a special proceeding to issue an injunction, and upon notice to the defendant of not less than five days, to enjoin and restrain the continuance of such violation; and if it shall appear to the satisfaction of the court or justice that the defendant has, in fact, violated this article, an injunction may be issued by such court or justice, enjoining and restraining any further violation, without requiring proof that any person has, in fact, been injured or damaged thereby. In any such proceeding, the court may make allowances to the attorney general as provided in paragraph six of subdivision (a) of Civil Practice Law & Rules Law § 8303 (Additional allowance in the discretion of the court)section eighty-three hundred three of the civil practice law and rules, and direct restitution. Whenever the court shall determine that a violation of this article has occurred, the court may impose a civil penalty of not more than five hundred dollars for such violation. In connection with any such proposed application, the attorney general is authorized to take proof and make a determination of the relevant facts and to issue subpoenas in accordance with the civil practice law and rules.

(e)

No person, firm, corporation or other legal entity which is regularly engaged in the business of manufacturing, distributing, selling, or offering for sale in-line skates shall be deemed to have violated the provisions of this subdivision, if such person, firm, corporation or other legal entity shows by a preponderance of evidence that the violation was not intentional and resulted from a bona fide error made notwithstanding the maintenance of procedures reasonably adopted to avoid any such error.

(f)

This subdivision shall not apply to the sale of in-line skates or protective gear sold or offered for sale by consumers for consumer use.

Source: Section 391-M — Manufacture and sale of in-line skates; regulation of, https://www.­nysenate.­gov/legislation/laws/GBS/391-M (updated Sep. 22, 2014; accessed Jun. 15, 2024).

390
Substitution of spurious oils for internal combustion engines
390‑A
Optical discs
390‑B
Anti-phishing act of 2006
390‑BB
Cramming prohibited
390‑C
Prohibit persons under eighteen years of age in certain facilities
390‑C*2
Posting of warnings by commercial entities offering internet access to the public
390‑D
Information concerning services for human trafficking victims in facilities at truck stops
390‑E
Unauthorized installation of certain security devices prohibited
390‑E*2
Skimming awareness notice
391
Marking retreaded, recapped or recut tires
391‑A
Unlawful acts relating to liquid fuels, lubricating oils and similar products
391‑B
Prohibit any sale of dangerous clothing articles
391‑C
Sale of bicycles
391‑D
Sale of matchbooks
391‑E
Promotion of camps by certain organizations
391‑F
Promotion of private schools by certain organizations
391‑G
Rental of motor vehicles
391‑H
Lubricating oils
391‑I
Sale of urea-formaldehyde foam insulation
391‑J
Sale of fire extinguishers
391‑JJ
Sale of electric space heaters
391‑K
Automatic garage door opening systems
391‑L
Personal emergency response service agreements
391‑L*2
Rental of motor vehicles
391‑M
Manufacture and sale of in-line skates
391‑N
Sale of reptiles
391‑OO
Sale of over-the-counter diet pills and dietary supplements for weight loss or muscle building
391‑P
Prohibit the rental of clothing articles previously worn
391‑Q
Rebates
391‑S
Sale and distribution of novelty lighters prohibited
391‑T
Sale of small animals
391‑U
Pricing goods and services on the basis of gender prohibited
391‑U*2
Restrictions on the sale and use of firefighting equipment containing PFAS chemicals
391‑V
Third-party food delivery agreements
392
Second-hand watches
392‑A
Sale of new computers
392‑B
False labels and misrepresentations
392‑C
Obliteration of marks of origin
392‑D
Using false marks as to manufacture
392‑E
Using false statements or altering mileage registering devices
392‑F
Taximeters
392‑G
Sale of ultraviolet radiation devices
392‑H
Trash receptacles
392‑I
Prices reduced to reflect change in sales tax computation
392‑J
Sales of sparkling devices
393
Lime
393‑A
Non fire rated wood paneling
393‑B
Written solicitation
393‑C
Sale of required labor postings
393‑D
Sale of certified copies of property deeds
393‑E
Sale of abandoned property location services
393‑F
Voluntary third-party notification
394
Lost or destroyed certificate of stock
394‑A
Proof of lost negotiable paper
394‑B
Limitations on certain contracts for instruction or use of physical or social training facilities
394‑C
Limitations on certain contracts involving social referral services
394‑CC
Internet dating safety
394‑CCC
Social media networks
394‑D
Privity of contract between franchise seller and customer or patron of dealer
394‑E
Report on request for abortional services
394‑F
Warrants for reproductive health related electronic data
395
Required disclosure of prior use
395‑A
Maintenance agreements
395‑B
Unlawfully installing or maintaining a two-way mirror or other viewing device
396
Unlawful selling practices
396‑A
Representation by savings and loan association of insurance on accounts
396‑AA
Simulated check
396‑AA*2
Unsolicited telefacsimile advertising
396‑AAA
Public display of tobacco and electronic cigarette advertisements and smoking paraphernalia prohibited
396‑B
Advertisements
396‑BB
Sale of motor fuels to disabled persons
396‑C
Advertisements by persons engaged in dental business relating to dentures and bridges
396‑CC
Notification of enclosure requirements for swimming pools
396‑CC*2
Senior citizen discounts
396‑D
Advertisement and description of real property
396‑DD
Renting of horses
396‑E
Marking articles made of linen
396‑EE
Sale of certain weapons
396‑EEE
Unlawful sale or delivery of body armor
396‑F
Sale of blind made products
396‑G
Sale of products processed by the blind
396‑H
Fraudulent sale of poppies, forget-me-nots, daisies, flags and other articles sold for patriotic purposes
396‑HH
Sale of poppies, forget-me-nots, daisies, flags and other articles for patriotic purposes
396‑I
Acceptance of unexpired gift certificates
396‑J
Sale or possession of master or manipulative keys for motor vehicles
396‑K
Hazardous toys and other articles intended primarily for use by children
396‑K*2
Sale of certain motor vehicles damaged by the ravages of natural disaster
396‑KK
Sale of video game consoles
396‑L
Shopping carts
396‑M
Mail-order or telephone-order merchandise
396‑MM
Unlawful trial offers
396‑N
Sales with “money back guarantee” and with “limited guarantee”
396‑O
Sales by persons offering credits or refunds in certain cases
396‑P
Rates to be posted in taxicabs
396‑P*2
Contracts for the sale of new motor vehicles
396‑Q
New motor vehicles
396‑QQ
New and used motor vehicles
396‑R
Price gouging
396‑RR
Price gouging
396‑S
Individual sewage disposal system
396‑SS
Access number notification
396‑T
Unlawful practices relating to layaway plans
396‑TT
Listing of business location in directory or database
396‑U
Merchandise delivery
396‑V
Operation of public automated blood pressure machines
396‑W
Loitering for the purpose of soliciting passengers for transportation
396‑X
Gasoline stations
396‑X*2
Unauthorized removal or destruction of newspapers
396‑Y
Sale of certain personal property
396‑Z
Rental vehicle protections
397
Unlawful use of name or other identification of certain non-profit organizations
397‑A
Distributing unsolicited advertising on private property prohibited
397‑B
Digital billboards
398
Bills of lading to be issued by vessels transporting merchandise within the state
398‑A
Shipment of motor vehicles outside the continental United States
398‑B
Discrimination in car rentals prohibited
398‑C
Children attending roller skating rinks and indoor ice skating rinks under certain conditions
398‑D
Disposal of abandoned molds
398‑E
Indemnity provision in motor carrier transportation contracts
398‑F
Children’s non-regulated camp
399
Cigarette package labeling
399‑A
Pay toilets
399‑AA
Prohibition of the selling of fur, hair, skin or flesh of a dog or cat
399‑AAA
Selling and manufacturing of fur-bearing articles of clothing
399‑AAAA
Menstrual product labeling
399‑AAAAA
Selling of animal tested cosmetics
399‑B
Contracts for the use of the streets for hack stands
399‑BB
Certain dry cleaning institutions
399‑BBB
Solicitations by container
399‑C
Mandatory arbitration clauses in certain consumer contracts prohibited
399‑CC
Wireless telephone numbers
399‑CC*2
Transcripts and stenographic services
399‑CCC
Smoke detecting devices
399‑CCCC
Wireless telephone services
399‑D
Children attending public bowling alleys under certain conditions
399‑DD
Sale of alcohol vaporizing devices prohibited
399‑DD*2
Construction or installation of playground or playground equipment
399‑DD*3
Consumer communications records privacy
399‑DDD
Confidentiality of social security account number
399‑DDD*2
Disclosure of social security number
399‑E
Prohibition of the importation, manufacturing, distribution, or sale of yo-yo waterball toys
399‑E*2
Actions
399‑EE
Zone pricing of gasoline prohibited
399‑F
Laundromat refund procedures
399‑FF
Petting zoos
399‑GG
Packaging of electronic liquid
399‑H
Disposal of records containing personal identifying information
399‑I
Prohibit the sale of unsafe cribs and restrict use of such cribs in certain settings
399‑II
Furniture tip restraint device
399‑II*2
Prohibit the sale of crib bumper pads and restrict use of such pads in certain settings
399‑J
Safety standards
399‑K
Access to toilet facilities for utility workers
399‑M
Disclosures in advertisement and sale of unassembled goods
399‑N
Approval of electrical devices
399‑NN
Sale of digital electronic equipment
399‑O
Selling prices and container deposits
399‑OO
Deceptive solicitation of vehicle warranty policies
399‑P
Telemarketing
399‑PP
Telemarketing and consumer fraud and abuse prevention act
399‑Q
Use of carts, cases, trays, baskets, boxes and other containers
399‑QQ
Sale or promotional distribution of utility knives, box cutters, or box cart cutters
399‑R
Sale of paint pellet guns
399‑RR
September eleventh victim compensation fund and World Trade Center health program notification
399‑S
Posting of notice when air rifles or guns are sold
399‑T
Sale of certain chlorofluorocarbons and halons prohibited
399‑T*2
Vending machine disclosure
399‑U
Motor vehicle alarms
399‑V
Parking facilities
399‑W
Total loss notice and waiver of the gap amount for non-motor vehicle retail lease agreements
399‑W*2
Notice requirements for renters of personal property
399‑X
Towed motor vehicles
399‑XX
Towing of motor vehicles
399‑Y
Child safety devices for hot water dispensers
399‑Y‑1
Automated teller machines transaction denial
399‑Y*2
Automated teller machine fee disclosure
399‑YY
Cable television company providing telephone services
399‑YYY
Satellite television company providing television and/or telephone services
399‑Z
Telemarketing
399‑Z‑1
Telecommunication companies blocking certain numbers
399‑Z‑1*2
STIR/SHAKEN authentication framework
399‑ZZ
Telephone bills
399‑ZZZ
Prohibition of certain fee charges
399‑ZZZZ
Prohibition of certain fee charges for termination or early cancellation
399‑ZZZZZ
Broadband service for low-income consumers
399‑ZZZZZ*2
Use of preferred name and pronouns

Accessed:
Jun. 15, 2024

Last modified:
Sep. 22, 2014

§ 391-M’s source at nysenate​.gov

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