N.Y. Agriculture & Markets Law Section 52
Presumptions in regard to cream and skim milk

When cream is separated or skimmed from milk at any station or establishment where milk is received from producers for the purpose of selling the same or shipping the same to market for consumption as food and the supply of milk on hand thereat at the time of the next regular daily shipment of milk therefrom, consisting of the total amount of milk in such shipment, together with that remaining on hand immediately after such shipment, is not thereby decreased or correspondingly less than the total quantity received during any period extending from some point of time before such skimming was done until the time of such shipment, together with the amount of milk on hand at the commencement of such period, and such decrease is not equal in amount to the quantity of milk that must have been used in so separating such cream in addition to the quantity otherwise there used or disposed of during such period, such fact is conclusive that skim milk or other foreign substance was added to such milk supply within such period and shall be presumptive evidence within the meaning of this section that the same was added to each can or vessel of milk in such shipment. When cream or skim milk is found to have been on the premises of any such station or establishment or is sold or shipped therefrom, such cream or skim milk so found or so sold or shipped therefrom shall be presumed to have been produced by separating or skimming at such station or establishment. In any action or proceeding relative to the adulteration of milk by removing cream therefrom or adding skim milk or other foreign substance thereto, it shall be presumed that when cream has been produced by so skimming or separating or butter has been manufactured, there was made at least five quarts of milk in the production of each quart of cream so produced and there was necessarily so produced thereby at least four quarts of skim milk to each quart of cream so produced, and that there was used at least nine quarts of milk in the production of each pound of butter so manufactured.

Source: Section 52 — Presumptions in regard to cream and skim milk, https://www.­nysenate.­gov/legislation/laws/AGM/52 (updated Sep. 22, 2014; accessed Nov. 25, 2023).

Declaration of policy
Care and feed of cows, and care and keeping of milk
Regulating the handling and sale of products made from recovered milk fat and solids
Receptacles to be cleansed before returning
Insanitary cans and receptacles condemned
Legislative finding and declaration of policy
Definitions and standards of identity
Licenses to manufacturers of melloream
Entry, inspection and investigation
Labeling of melloream and vegetable oil blends
Serving melloream, vegetable oil blends and cream in restaurants and other public eating places
Rules and regulations
Milk inspection
Presumptions in regard to cream and skim milk
Regulations in regard to manufactories, plants or places where milk or cream is brought or received
Skimmed milk, whey, buttermilk or milk container or plant equipment rinsings to be heated before being used for feeding
Determination of the content of milk and/or cream where purchase or settlement therefor is made on the basis of such content
Taking of composite sample
Determination of bacteria in milk and/or cream where purchase or settlement is made therefor on the basis of bacterial count
Licensing of persons in charge of milk-gathering stations, manufactories or plants
Licensing of persons making bacterial counts of milk and/or cream or making tests of milk and/or cream to detect certain abnormalities
Powers of the department concerning oleomargarine
Manufacture, sale, and use of oleomargarine
Coloring matter, dairy terms, size of package, labeling, false advertising
Labeling of imitation cheese
Manufacturers identification markings and grade brands for cheese
Pasteurization of cheese
Use of false brand prohibited
County trade marks
Branded cans, jars, bottles, cases, boxes or barrels not to be sold, remarked or used without consent of owner
Registration of mark

Nov. 25, 2023

Last modified:
Sep. 22, 2014

§ 52’s source at nysenate​.gov

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