N.Y. Civil Practice Law & Rules Section 4518
Business records


(a)

Generally. Any writing or record, whether in the form of an entry in a book or otherwise, made as a memorandum or record of any act, transaction, occurrence or event, shall be admissible in evidence in proof of that act, transaction, occurrence or event, if the judge finds that it was made in the regular course of any business and that it was the regular course of such business to make it, at the time of the act, transaction, occurrence or event, or within a reasonable time thereafter. An electronic record, as defined in State Technology Law § 302 (Definitions)section three hundred two of the state technology law, used or stored as such a memorandum or record, shall be admissible in a tangible exhibit that is a true and accurate representation of such electronic record. The court may consider the method or manner by which the electronic record was stored, maintained or retrieved in determining whether the exhibit is a true and accurate representation of such electronic record. All other circumstances of the making of the memorandum or record, including lack of personal knowledge by the maker, may be proved to affect its weight, but they shall not affect its admissibility. The term business includes a business, profession, occupation and calling of every kind.

(b)

Hospital bills. A hospital bill is admissible in evidence under this rule and is prima facie evidence of the facts contained, provided it bears a certification by the head of the hospital or by a responsible employee in the controller’s or accounting office that the bill is correct, that each of the items was necessarily supplied and that the amount charged is reasonable. This subdivision shall not apply to any proceeding in a surrogate’s court nor in any action instituted by or on behalf of a hospital to recover payment for accommodations or supplies furnished or for services rendered by or in such hospital, except that in a proceeding pursuant to Lien Law § 189 (Liens of hospitals)section one hundred eighty-nine of the lien law to determine the validity and extent of the lien of a hospital, such certified hospital bills are prima facie evidence of the fact of services and of the reasonableness of any charges which do not exceed the comparable charges made by the hospital in the care of workmen’s compensation patients.

(c)

Other records. All records, writings and other things referred to in sections 2306 and 2307 are admissible in evidence under this rule and are prima facie evidence of the facts contained, provided they bear a certification or authentication by the head of the hospital, laboratory, department or bureau of a municipal corporation or of the state, or by an employee delegated for that purpose or by a qualified physician. Where a hospital record is in the custody of a warehouse as that term is defined by paragraph (thirteen) of subsection (a) of section 7--102 of the uniform commercial code, pursuant to a plan approved in writing by the state commissioner of health, admissibility under this subdivision may be established by a certification made by the manager of the warehouse that sets forth (i) the authority by which the record is held, including but not limited to a court order, order of the commissioner, or order or resolution of the governing body or official of the hospital, and

(ii)

that the record has been in the exclusive custody of such warehouse or warehousemen since its receipt from the hospital or, if another has had access to it, the name and address of such person and the date on which and the circumstances under which such access was had. Any warehouse providing a certification as required by this subdivision shall have no liability for acts or omissions relating thereto, except for intentional misconduct, and the warehouse is authorized to assess and collect a reasonable charge for providing the certification described by this subdivision. Where a hospital record is located in a jurisdiction other than this state, admissibility under this subdivision may be established by either a certification or authentication by the head of the hospital, laboratory, department or bureau of a municipal corporation or of the state or by an employee delegated for that purpose, or by a qualified physician.

(d)

Any records or reports relating to the administration and analysis of a genetic marker or DNA test, including records or reports of the costs of such tests, administered pursuant to sections four hundred eighteen and five hundred thirty-two of the family court act or Social Services Law § 111-K (Procedures relating to acknowledgments of parentage, agreements to support, and genetic tests)section one hundred eleven-k of the social services law are admissible in evidence under this rule and are prima facie evidence of the facts contained therein provided they bear a certification or authentication by the head of the hospital, laboratory, department or bureau of a municipal corporation or the state or by an employee delegated for that purpose, or by a qualified physician. If such record or report relating to the administration and analysis of a genetic marker test or DNA test or tests administered pursuant to sections four hundred eighteen and five hundred thirty-two of the family court act or Social Services Law § 111-K (Procedures relating to acknowledgments of parentage, agreements to support, and genetic tests)section one hundred eleven-k of the social services law indicates at least a ninety-five percent probability of paternity, the admission of such record or report shall create a rebuttable presumption of paternity, and shall, if unrebutted, establish the paternity of and liability for the support of a child pursuant to articles four and five of the family court act.

(e)

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a record or report relating to the administration and analysis of a genetic marker test or DNA test certified in accordance with subdivision (d) of this rule and administered pursuant to sections four hundred eighteen and five hundred thirty-two of the family court act or Social Services Law § 111-K (Procedures relating to acknowledgments of parentage, agreements to support, and genetic tests)section one hundred eleven-k of the social services law is admissible in evidence under this rule without the need for foundation testimony or further proof of authenticity or accuracy unless objections to the record or report are made in writing no later than twenty days before a hearing at which the record or report may be introduced into evidence or thirty days after receipt of the test results, whichever is earlier.

(f)

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, records or reports of support payments and disbursements maintained pursuant to title six-A of article three of the social services law by the office of temporary and disability assistance or the fiscal agent under contract to the office for the provision of centralized collection and disbursement functions are admissible in evidence under this rule, provided that they bear a certification by an official of a social services district attesting to the accuracy of the content of the record or report of support payments and that in attesting to the accuracy of the record or report such official has received confirmation from the office of temporary and disability assistance or the fiscal agent under contract to the office for the provision of centralized collection and disbursement functions pursuant to Social Services Law § 111-H (Support collection unit)section one hundred eleven-h of the social services law that the record or report of support payments reflects the processing of all support payments in the possession of the office or the fiscal agent as of a specified date, and that the document is a record or report of support payments maintained pursuant to title six-A of article three of the social services law. If so certified, such record or report shall be admitted into evidence under this rule without the need for additional foundation testimony. Such records shall be the basis for a permissive inference of the facts contained therein unless the trier of fact finds good cause not to draw such inference.

(g)

Pregnancy and childbirth costs. Any hospital bills or records relating to the costs of pregnancy or birth of a child for whom proceedings to establish paternity, pursuant to sections four hundred eighteen and five hundred thirty-two of the family court act or Social Services Law § 111-K (Procedures relating to acknowledgments of parentage, agreements to support, and genetic tests)section one hundred eleven-k of the social services law have been or are being undertaken, are admissible in evidence under this rule and are prima facie evidence of the facts contained therein, provided they bear a certification or authentication by the head of the hospital, laboratory, department or bureau of a municipal corporation or the state or by an employee designated for that purpose, or by a qualified physician.

Source: Section 4518 — Business records, https://www.­nysenate.­gov/legislation/laws/CVP/4518 (updated Aug. 31, 2018; accessed Jun. 15, 2024).

4501
Self-incrimination
4502
Spouse
4503
Attorney
4504
Physician, dentist, podiatrist, chiropractor and nurse
4505
Confidential communication to clergy privileged
4506
Eavesdropping evidence
4507
Psychologist
4508
Social worker
4509
Library records
4510
Rape crisis counselor or domestic violence advocate
4511
Judicial notice of law
4512
Competency of interested witness or spouse
4513
Competency of person convicted of crime
4514
Impeachment of witness by prior inconsistent statement
4515
Form of expert opinion
4516
Proof of age of child
4517
Prior testimony in a civil action
4518
Business records
4519
Personal transaction or communication between witness and decedent or person with a mental illness
4519‑A
Possession of opioid antagonists
4520
Certificate or affidavit of public officer
4521
Lack of record
4522
Ancient filed maps, surveys and records affecting real property
4523
Search by title insurance or abstract company
4524
Conveyance of real property without the state
4525
Copies of statements under article nine of the uniform commercial code
4526
Marriage certificate
4527
Death or other status of missing person
4528
Weather conditions
4529
Inspection certificate issued by United States department of agriculture
4530
Certificate of population
4531
Affidavit of service or posting notice by person unavailable at trial
4532
Self-authentication of newspapers and periodicals of general circulation
4532‑A
Admissibility of graphic, numerical, symbolic or pictorial representations of medical or diagnostic tests
4532‑B
An image, map, location, distance, calculation, or other information taken from a web mapping service, a global satellite imaging site, o...
4533
Market reports
4533‑A
Prima facie proof of damages
4533‑B
Proof of payment by joint tort-feasor
4534
Standard of measurement used by surveyor
4536
Proof of writing by comparison of handwriting
4537
Proof of writing subscribed by witness
4538
Acknowledged, proved or certified writing
4539
Reproductions of original
4540
Authentication of official record of court or government office in the United States
4540‑A
Presumption of authenticity based on a party’s production of material authored or otherwise created by the party
4541
Proof of proceedings before justice of the peace
4542
Proof of foreign records and documents
4543
Proof of facts or writing by methods other than those authorized in this article
4544
Contracts in small print
4545
Admissibility of collateral source of payment
4546
Loss of earnings and impairment of earning ability in actions for medical, dental or podiatric malpractice
4547
Compromise and offers to compromise
4548
Privileged communications
4549
Admissibility of an opposing party’s statement
4550
Admissibility of evidence related to legally protected health activity
4551
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Accessed:
Jun. 15, 2024

Last modified:
Aug. 31, 2018

§ 4518’s source at nysenate​.gov

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