N.Y. Criminal Procedure Law Section 182.10
Definition of terms

As used in this article:


“Independent audio-visual system” means an electronic system for the transmission and receiving of audio and visual signals, encompassing encoded signals, frequency domain multiplexing or other suitable means to preclude the unauthorized reception and decoding of the signals by commercially available television receivers, channel converters, or other available receiving devices.


“Electronic appearance” means an appearance in which various participants, including the defendant, are not present in the court, but in which, by means of an independent audio-visual system, (a) all of the participants are simultaneously able to see and hear reproductions of the voices and images of the judge, counsel, defendant, police officer, and any other appropriate participant, and


counsel is present with the defendant, or if the defendant waives the presence of counsel on the record, the defendant and his or her counsel are able to see and hear each other and engage in private conversation. * NB Repealed September 1, 2025

Source: Section 182.10 — Definition of terms, https://www.­nysenate.­gov/legislation/laws/CPL/182.­10 (updated May 12, 2023; accessed Jun. 15, 2024).

Jun. 15, 2024

Last modified:
May 12, 2023

§ 182.10’s source at nysenate​.gov

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