New York State Finance Law
As used in this article, the following terms shall mean:
1. “Claim” (a) means any request or demand, whether under a contract or otherwise, for money or property that (i) is presented to an officer, employee or agent of the state or a local government; or
(ii) is made to a contractor, grantee, or other recipient, if the money or property is to be spent or used on the state or a local government’s behalf or to advance a state or local government program or interest, and if the state or local government (A) provides or has provided any portion of the money or property requested or demanded; or (B) will reimburse such contractor, grantee, or other recipient for any portion of the money or property which is requested or demanded; (b) does not include requests or demands for money or property that the state or a local government has already paid to an individual as compensation for government employment or as an income subsidy with no restrictions on that individual’s use of the money or property.
2. “False claim” means any claim which is, either in whole or part, false or fraudulent.
3. “Knowing and knowingly” (a) means that a person, with respect to information:
(i) has actual knowledge of the information;
(ii) acts in deliberate ignorance of the truth or falsity of the information; or
(iii) acts in reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the information; and (b) require no proof of specific intent to defraud, provided, however that acts occurring by mistake or as a result of mere negligence are not covered by this article.
4. “Obligation” means an established duty, whether or not fixed, arising from an express or implied contractual, grantor-grantee, or licensor-licensee relationship, from a fee-based or similar relationship, from statute or regulation, or from the retention of any overpayment.
5. “Material” means having a natural tendency to influence, or be capable of influencing the payment or receipt of money or property.
6. “Local government” means any New York county, city, town, village, school district, board of cooperative educational services, local public benefit corporation or other municipal corporation or political subdivision of the state, or of such local government.
7. “Original source” means a person who (a) prior to a public disclosure under paragraph (b) of subdivision nine of section one hundred ninety of this article has voluntarily disclosed to the state or a local government the information on which allegations or transactions in a cause of action are based, or (b) who has knowledge that is independent of and materially adds to the publicly disclosed allegations or transactions, and who has voluntarily provided the information to the state or a local government before or simultaneous with filing an action under this article.
8. “Person” means any natural person, partnership, corporation, association or any other legal entity or individual, other than the state or a local government.
9. “State” means the state of New York and any state department, board, bureau, division, commission, committee, public benefit corporation, public authority, council, office or other governmental entity performing a governmental or proprietary function for the state.